Nine facts about Urology Care to be kept in mind

July 31, 2019
Nine facts about Urology Care to be kept in mind

Fact 1: Blood in the urine

Men after 70 years of age should be cautious about their prostate health. The prostate enlargement problem is known as Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and is presented in men between their bladder and urethra.

Prostate enlargement causes urinary problems such as frequency of urination, urgency, urge incontinence, poor stream, haematuria (blood in the urine) incomplete evacuation and nocturia ( night time frequency). More than 50% of the men after 50 years suffer from this problem. If not treated they produces recurrent urinary tract infection, bladder stones and kidney failure.

What to do:

Fact 2: Avoid overuse of antibiotics

Over use of antibiotics and improper hygiene leads to Urinary tract infection (UTI). It is more common in young women and premenopausal age (40% in women 12% more common in men). More commonly, the E coli is the bug which is rampant and causes infection of the urinary system and at times remain in the body persistently. If not treated, it can cause sepsis and kidney damage and at times is life threatening.

What to do:

  • Adequate water intake (1.5-2 litres/day), and add curds, milk in your die
  • Avoid sugar, caffeine, alcohol
  • Avoid using over-the-counter antibiotics
  • Maintain proper hygiene

Fact 3: Keep sugar levels in control

When long duration diabetes/sugar levels aren’t under control, it leads to a severe condition called Pyelonephritis. Papillary necrosis associated UTI is on the rise in diabetics for more than 10 years and antibiotics might produce adverse effects with fungal infection which is a life-threating condition. Its incidence among Indians is alarming (7-38%) due to increased incidence of diabetes among general population. This condition is on the rise in Karnataka and especially in Bengaluru.

What to do:

  • Regular exercise
  • Strict control of diabetes
  • Regular follow-up with the physician
  • Restrict sugar intake

Fact 4: Urinary trouble in kids?

Hydronephrosis is a condition caused in children due to narrowing of the urinary passage. It’s commonly seen in infants and children as a birth defect (congenital) and rarely presents after 40 years in adults due to enlarged blood vessel compressing the ureter. It causes abdominal pain while passing urine in children.

Treatment requires reconstructive procedure to eliminate the blockage. They can be treated with conservative measures in early cases and, laser, laparoscopic and robotic procedures for more complex obstruction.

What to do:

  • Regular antenatal scan in pregnancy
  • Consume small quantities of water throughout the day

Fact 5: Smoking is injurious to health

Smokers are prone to one bladder cancer, one of the deadliest urological conditions. It is a cancer of lining of urinary bladder very commonly seen in smokers. Smoking has direct relationship to bladder cancer. Most common symptoms are blood in the urine, passing clots and tissue bits, frequent urination and pain in lower abdomen. Often it is painless.

What to do:

  • Stop smoking
  • Stop smoking

Fact 6: Women should never ignore this menopausal symptoms

Women in menopausal age group or multiparous (multiple child birth) women should be cautious about urinary incontinence (urine leakage). The problem ranges from a few drops in some women to enormous amount of urine leakage in others. In most women, urine leaks when they cough or laugh or during brisk walk when they have stress incontinence.

Nearly 70 per cent of women over 70 years of age suffer from urinary leakage. Most women shy away from addressing the problem of urine leakage (especially in our country) and don’t even discuss it with their spouse.

It is caused due to female urethra which is shorter (4 cms as compared to 18 cms in male) and the muscles around the urethra become weak post childbirth and in old age.

What to do:

  • Exercise regularly specially after childbirth
  • Maintain hygiene and avoid certain infections which may double the condition

Fact 7: The infertility problem

Male infertility is due to low sperm production, abnormal sperm function or blockages that prevent the delivery of sperm. Illnesses, injuries, chronic health problems, lifestyle choices and other factors can play a role in causing male infertility. Nearly 50 per cent of infertility issues are due to male factors, hence they require a thorough evaluation.

What to do:

  • Avoid stress
  • Avoid smoking, alcohol and caffeine intake
  • Keep mobile, laptops away from the body when not in use

Fact 8: Never ignore severe stomach cramps

Kidney stones are a very common condition seen among all age groups more commonly in age group between 25-55 years. Kidney stones form when the urine becomes concentrated, allowing minerals and salts to crystallize and stick together. It is mainly caused due to super saturation of the urinary salts. Various forms of stones are known viz. calcium, oxalate, phosphorous, uric acid and xanthene stones.

What to do:

  • Drink plenty of water (2-3 litres in summer and 1.5 litres in winter)
  • Daily use of lemon or orange juice (without salt and sugar) will go a long way in preventing stone crystallization.
  • Banana juice, coconut water are beneficial during summer

Fact 9: Think before consuming too much meat

Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in men. It is the third most common cancer in Bangalore with annual per cent change of 3.4% (cancer registry data, PBCRs) which indicates that it is increasing due to urbanisation. The sign of identifying prostate cancer can be blood in semen, bone pain or difficulty or pain while passing urine. It is most common in west and among those who consume excess meat.

What to do:

  • Avoid excess consumption of lamb, pork and beef and increase use of vegetables and fruits
  • Yearly PSA check after 55 years and at 45 years if there is a family history

Author:

Dr. Manohar T(Chief of Urology)

Columbia Asia Referral Hospital Yeshwanthpur