Neurology

Neurology - Columbia Asia Hospital, India
Department of Neurology at Columbia Asia Hospitals offers round the clock, comprehensive diagnostic and therapeutic neurology services. The Neurology team is highly qualified, experienced and manage patients as per internationally accepted, evidence based protocols. The team handles regular outpatient neurological problems as well as neurological emergencies like acute ischemic strokes, intracranial bleeds (traumatic and non- traumatic), neuromuscular emergencies, neuro-infections and status epilepticus.

The neurology consultants are the leaders of the stroke team that also comprises of neuroradiologists, neurosurgeons and interventional specialists trained in acute stroke care. The procedures offered are intravenous, intra-arterial and mechanical thrombolysis, intracranial and extracranial cerebral vessel angioplasty and stenting, decompressive craniectomy for large infarcts, evacuation of the intracerebral clots using penumbra device and stereotactic technique

The department of neurology at Columbia Asia Hospitals, are supported by well equipped neuro intensive care unit facilities like invasive intra cranial pressure monitoring and bedside Electro Encephalo Gram (EEG) monitoring for managing critically ill patients with neurological illnesses. Neurologists are experienced to administer botulinum toxin injections in various movement disorders and spasticity.

Treatments and Procedures
  • Diagnosis and management of various seizure disorders
  • Neurophysiology unit: Nerve conduction study, Electromyography, Repetitive nerve stimulation study, evoked potentials (VEP,SSEP,BAER), EEG, portable EEG and sleep lab
  • Management of neuromuscular disorders, peripheral neuropathies, chronic pain, neuro-infections and sleep disorders
  • Management and treatment of stroke
  • Comprehensive neuro rehabilitation including physiotherapy and occupational therapy
  • Management of dementia including alzheimer’s disease
  • Thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator (TPA)  
 
Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS)

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a surgical procedure used to treat a variety of disabling neurological symptoms – most commonly the debilitating symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. It is a therapy for well-screened patients with specific treatment-resistant neuropsychiatric diseases. It is a minimally invasive surgery. The patients are first evaluated by a neurologist who specialises in movement disorders. To know more Click Here

Peripheral Neuropathy

What is peripheral neuropathy?

Peripheral neuropathy is a nerve disorder which may cause numbness, tingling, weakness and pain. Symptoms usually affect the feet first and later the hands, which is also called the 'stocking-glove' pattern. The symptoms usually spread slowly and evenly up the legs and arms. Other body parts might also be affected. Most people who develop peripheral neuropathy are over the age of 55 but people can be affected at any age.

What causes peripheral neuropathy?

Common causes include:

  • Diabetes
  • Alcohol abuse
  • Poor nutrition
  • Autoimmune processes (where the body’s own immune system attacks parts of the nerves)
  • Hereditary
  • Exposure to certain drugs or toxins
  • Direct pressure or compression of a single nerve like in carpal tunnel syndrome

What are the symptoms?

Early symptoms of peripheral neuropathy include:

  • Tingling
  • Burning
  • Pricking, stabbing or shock-like pain
  • Muscle cramping
  • Numbness
  • Sensitivity to touch

Late symptoms can include:

  • Weakness
  • Loss of muscle mass
  • Digestive problems
  • Erectile dysfunction in men
  • Dizziness
  • Balance and walking problems
  • Increased risk of ulcers or infections in the feet

Most types of neuropathy develop and progress slowly, but some types come on quickly.

For instance, with Guillain-Barré syndrome, a disorder in which the body's immune system attacks the nerves, neuropathy symptoms appear suddenly and progress rapidly. Then they slowly get better as the damaged nerves heal.

How is peripheral neuropathy diagnosed?

Peripheral neuropathy is often first recognised because of the characteristic symptoms. A physician will look for medical conditions associated with neuropathy or medications that commonly cause neuropathy. A neurological examination can confirm the diagnosis. Sometimes electrical tests of the nerves and muscles (electromyography and nerve conduction studies) help to confirm and classify the neuropathy. More tests may be needed to determine the cause of the neuropathy. Sometimes a specific cause is not identified.

What are the treatment options?

  • For most types of neuropathy, no treatment is available that can cure or modify the disease. In these cases, symptomatic treatment especially for pain is available.
  • Physical therapy can help with balance problems and safety issues. Assistive devices, such as canes or walkers can also be useful.
  • For some types of neuropathy, treatments are available that can help control the disease or prevent further nerve damage.
  • For people with neuropathy caused by diabetes, controlling blood sugar levels may prevent further nerve damage.
  • Medications that alter the immune system can be used to treat autoimmune neuropathies.
  • Identification of a treatable, associated medical cause such as a vitamin deficiency or imbalance of thyroid hormone may arrest or partially reverse the neuropathy.
  • Exercise may reduce nerve pain and improve overall health and mood. Daily walking, housework, gardening and other daily chores all count as exercise.
  • Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) can help reduce the pain for some people.
  • Talk to your physician about which treatments may be best for you.

Living with peripheral neuropathy

Lifestyle changes may also help relieve symptoms.

  • Stop smoking. Nicotine has been found to increase pain perception.
  • Limit alcohol consumption.
  • Eat a healthy diet.
  • Avoid excessive consumption of vitamin B6 which can cause neuropathy at levels of more than 100 mg daily.
Parkinson's Disease

What is Parkinson’s disease?

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a movement disorder where a vital chemical in the brain called dopamine is gradually reduced. This causes tremors, slowness in movement, stiff limbs and walking or balance problems. PD progresses slowly but a treatment can reduce the symptoms and improve quality of life.

What causes Parkinson’s disease?

The cause of PD is still unknown. Researchers think that both genes and environment may play a role. The disorder is due to a loss of nerve cells in an area deep within the brain called the substantia nigra where the chemical dopamine is produced. Dopamine helps to send signals within the brain. Without the right amount of dopamine, movement can be impaired.

What are the symptoms?

Symptoms vary from person to person and usually appear gradually. The main symptoms of PD are:

  • Rigidity or stiffness in arms and legs
  • Tremor that is often most noticeable when the affected limb is at rest
  • Poor balance and coordination
  • Bradykinesia or slowness in starting a movement which may lead to less facial expressions, changes in speaking and voice quality, shuffling gait, smaller handwriting or trouble with fine finger movements, such as buttoning a shirt

How is Parkinson’s disease diagnosed?

No laboratory test or brain scan can definitively diagnose PD. Your physician who is experienced in treating the disorder will make a diagnosis based on your symptoms and neurological examination.

What are the treatment options?

Treatment is symptomatic. The treatments available today have been proven to relieve bothersome symptoms of the disease and improve everyday function.

Medications

  • No currently available medication has been proven to adequately slow the progression of PD, but many medications can control symptoms.
  • Medication side effects include nausea, vomiting, light-headedness, restlessness, sleepiness, bad dreams and hallucinations.
  • Some drugs may cause changes in behaviour such as obsessive gambling or shopping.
  • Changing the dosage or discontinuing certain drugs usually improves these side effects. PD can change over time, it is important to have regular evaluations so that medications can be adjusted to address changing symptoms.

Deep brain stimulation (DBS)

The main non-drug treatment for PD is DBS. Tiny electrodes are surgically implanted in the brain. The electrodes are connected to a small control unit implanted under the skin in the upper chest. DBS is an option for only about 10-20% of people with PD.

Your neurologist can tell you if this treatment might be helpful for you. In addition to movement problems, PD can affect other functions. Some people experience problems with depression, anxiety, apathy, memory, hallucinations, sleep, pain, speech, drooling, urinating or constipation. Treatments for these non-motor problems are available.

Living with Parkinson’s disease

  • Many find that lifestyle changes can help control their symptoms.
  • Eating a well balanced diet helps maintain health and strength.
  • Exercise helps maintain muscle tone and strength and also improves mobility.
  • Swimming and walking are especially helpful. Ask your physician to work with you to develop an exercise regimen.
  • Eating healthy foods, staying active and exercising can help you maintain a good quality of life.
  • Physical therapy may also be beneficial. For people who develop speech problems, speech therapy may be helpful.

Partnering with your neurologist

To provide the best care, your neurologist needs to know all about your symptoms and medical history. Likewise, you need to get answers to your questions. Keeping a notebook about your condition and bringing a few well-organised questions to your appointments can be helpful.

Myasthenia Gravis

What is myasthenia gravis?

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a neuromuscular disorder that causes muscle weakness. It affects muscles that a person can usually control consciously like those controlling the eyelids, eye movement, breathing swallowing as well as the facial and shoulder muscles.

The weakness tends to temporarily worsen with activity and improves with rest. MG is an autoimmune disorder. This means the body's immune system mistakenly attacks the connection between the nerve and muscle. In MG, the muscle cells have problems responding to the nerve impulses that normally signal them to contract and this result in weakness.

The disease usually does not reduce life expectancy. Most people with MG manage their symptoms and lead active lives. MG affects people of all ages and ethnic groups. Women are most often affected in their 20s and 30s. Men usually develop MG in late middle age.

What causes myasthenia gravis?

MG is caused by a problem with nerve impulses getting to muscles. Normally when impulses travel down the nerve, the nerve endings release a protein called acetylcholine. Acetylcholine is like a key that fits into the acetylcholine receptor which is like a lock. With the proper fit, the door opens and a signal is sent to the muscle to do its job. Antibodies are proteins produced by the body in response to harmful substances. In MG, the body mistakenly makes antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor.

Acetylcholine receptor antibodies fit into the receptor and cause it to be destroyed so the door does not open and no signal is received by the muscle. This leads to muscle weakness. It is thought that the thymus gland may instruct the immune system to produce the antibodies. The thymus gland is in the chest. In some people with MG, the thymus becomes enlarged. In others, tumours of the thymus may develop.

In rare cases, children develop MG symptoms due to a genetic defect. In these children, acetylcholine antibodies cannot be detected in the blood.

Women with MG who are planning pregnancies should talk to their physicians. Temporary MG occurs in about 15% of infants born to women with MG due to the transfer of antibodies across the placenta. The condition lasts for only a few weeks, but it needs to be recognised. These infants often need to be treated in an intensive care unit until the weakness is gone.

What are the symptoms?

The symptoms of MG vary from person to person. For some, only the muscles that control eye movements and the eyelids are affected. In others, the muscles that control swallowing and speech are affected. Some muscles are weaker than others. In some people, breathing can be affected. This is due to the weakness of the throat or diaphragm muscles. In a few cases, weakness can cause respiratory failure that requires emergency medical support. In contrast to many other diseases producing weakness, the legs are less commonly involved in MG.

How is myasthenia gravis diagnosed?

Many disorders can cause weakness. The diagnosis of MG should be made by a neurologist. The evaluation may include:

  • Medical and neurological evaluation
  • Blood tests to check for antibodies
  • Blood tests or other studies to rule out other causes of weakness
  • Imaging scans
  • Electrical tests of nerve and muscle function (electromyography and nerve conduction studies)
  • Ice pack test to improve the strength of the eyelid

What are the treatment options?

MG does not have a cure yet but effective treatments are available. It can take time to find the right combination of treatments for each person. In up to 20% of the people, symptoms may improve or disappear for up to a year or more. Occasionally, the disease may disappear permanently, although this is rare. No one knows why these remissions occur.

Treatments include:

Medication: include drugs to suppress the immune system and decrease the autoantibodies or drugs that slow the breakdown of acetylcholine and prolong its action at the nerve-muscle connection

Surgery: The thymus gland may be removed if it is suspected to be the cause. It is still not clear whether removal of a thymus that appears normal on imaging is a useful treatment.

Plasma exchange: In plasma exchange, abnormal antibodies are removed from the blood. Then red blood cells are returned in artificial plasma. Antibody removal in this way produces temporary improvement in most patients but also requires some form of immune suppression so that the antibodies do not rebound.

Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG): may temporarily modify the immune system and provide the body with normal antibodies from donated blood

Living with myasthenia gravis

With treatment, the outlook for most people with MG is bright. You can have a full, productive life.

Learning to manage the symptoms of MG can make it easier.

  • Schedule regular rest periods during the day.
  • Delegate tasks to other family members.
  • Learn to manage and reduce your stress.
  • If your swallowing is affected, plan meals at times when your muscle strength is greater.
  • Fasting and skipping meals should be avoided. When hungry, eat solids as food is the pillar of your health.

Partnering with your neurologist

To provide the best care, your neurologist needs to know all about your symptoms and medical history. Likewise, you need to get answers to your questions. Keeping a notebook about your condition and bringing a few well-organised questions to your appointments can be helpful.

Migraine

What is a migraine?

A migraine is a recurring, moderate to severe headache. The pain, usually throbbing, occurs on one side of the head. Migraine is a biological disorder of the brain. While it is more common in women, it can affect anyone. It usually begins in childhood, adolescence or young adulthood.

What causes migraine?

The exact cause of migraine is unknown. It appears to be an inherited biochemical disorder in the brain. People with migraine may have a more sensitive nervous system response than others. During an attack,the changes in brain activity may cause blood vessels and nerves around the brain to become irritated and inflamed.

What are the symptoms?

Symptoms vary greatly among people with migraine but can include:

  • Moderate to severe headache that lasts 4 to 72 hours, if untreated
  • Throbbing pain, often on one side of the head
  • Increased pain after exercise or movement
  • Sensitivity to bright light, sound and / or odours
  • Nausea and / or vomiting with the headache. One in five people with migraine have a warning before the headache. This is called an aura, which may cause flashing lights, temporary loss of sight or numbness on one side of the body. In some cases, people experience the aura without an accompanying headache.

How is migraine diagnosed?

No medical test can confirm that you have a migraine. You will need to provide details about your headaches and your other symptoms to your neurologist or primary care physician, who will perform a neurologic examination to check the functioning of your nervous system. Often, no further testing is needed. If your symptoms do not fit a typical pattern for migraine, your physician might order brain imaging or other tests.

What are the treatment options?

Although there is no cure, migraine is treatable with proper medical care and self-management that:

  • Identifies and controls triggers that start a migraine
  • Uses medications to treat migraine attacks acutely
  • Uses medications and other treatments to help prevent attacks
  • Encourages healthy behaviour and lifestyle changes
  • Keeping a headache diary is a valuable tool for treating migraine. In it, you can note your pain level, symptoms, possible triggers and treatments.

Acute migraine treatments are used to stop an attack when it occurs and treat its symptoms.

Two types of acute treatments are available; drugs that specifically stop the migraine, called abortive treatments and nonspecific pain relievers. These will be prescribed by your doctor.

It is very important to take these medications as close to the start of the headache as possible.

Acute treatments do not work as well several hours into a headache. Most of these acute treatments are designed to be used infrequently. If you find that you are using acute therapies more than one to two times per week, you should talk to your neurologist about alternative approaches. Anti-nausea drugs are also frequently used to treat nausea that accompanies the migraine and they may have some effect on the headache itself.

Preventive treatments

Daily preventive medications are available for people with frequent, severe and debilitating migraines. They can also help if your treatment is not working or is causing side effects.

Contact your neurologist if your treatment is not working or if you are overusing acute medications to stop migraine attacks. Overuse of acute drugs can lead to more frequent headaches.

Cognitive and behavioural treatments

Ask your neurologist for more information regarding cognitive and behavioural treatments.

  • Relaxation training
  • Cognitive-behavioural therapy (also called stress-management training)

Living with migraine

The following practices and tips can help reduce the impact migraine has on your life. Know and avoid migraine triggers which vary from person to person. Some triggers are avoidable, but many are not. They can include:

Diet: missed meals, alcohol, foods with monosodium glutamate (MSG), too much caffeine or withdrawal from caffeine and preserved meats with nitrates and nitrites

Sleep: too much or too little sleep, sleeping late night or late dinner after 9:30 pm

Stress: relief from stress

Hormones: changes during the menstrual cycle

Environmental factors: weather changes, bright or glaring lights, strong odours and high altitude

Develop a partnership with your neurologist

  • Work with your neurologist to develop a treatment plan and follow it
  • Keep up your follow-up visits with your neurologist
  • If your headaches are bad, talk to your neurologist about prevention
  • Be actively involved in your treatment, including keeping a headache diary
Epilepsy

What is epilepsy?

Epilepsy is a medical condition where a person has recurring, unprovoked seizures. Having a single seizure does not mean that a person has epilepsy. Seizures are short episodes when a person does not function normally because of abnormal electrical discharges in the brain. During a seizure, these impulses become overactive or occur at the same time which leads to irregular brain activity. This can cause changes in behaviour and body function.

What causes epilepsy?

Epilepsy does not have a single cause. In fact, for many people with epilepsy, no cause is ever found.

Some known causes include:

  • Developmental abnormalities in the brain
  • Infections that injure the brain
  • Lack of oxygen to the brain
  • Disturbance in blood circulation to the brain (stroke and other vascular problems)
  • Tumours of the brain
  • Previous trauma (such as brain injury)
  • Genetic causes

What are the symptoms?

  • Convulsions (uncontrollable muscle stiffening and shaking)
  • Brief staring spells
  • Repetitive, automatic behaviour such as chewing movements
  • Decreased awareness of what is going on

How is epilepsy diagnosed?

Your neurologist will ask you and your family members or other observers about any seizure-like episodes you may have experienced. Your neurologist will need to understand your family's medical history to see whether you have an inherited form of epilepsy. Your neurologist will also determine whether you have other risk factors for epilepsy and perform a neurological examination.

It is likely that your neurologist will perform several tests, including:

  • Electroencephalography (EEG) which records brain wave patterns
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain
  • Blood tests

What are the treatment options?

The most common treatment to prevent seizures is the daily use of medications. Nearly 70% of people with epilepsy can have good control of their seizures using medications. Most people whose seizures are controlled with drugs have few restrictions on their activities. Many medications are available. Some of them work better for one type of epilepsy than another. Talk to your neurologist about the choice of medication, how often it is taken and any side effects.

Side effects may vary from one drug to another and from one person to another. Your neurologist will make sure that the prescribed drug is the best medication for you.

In some cases, medication does not work. Then surgery or vagus nerve stimulation may be an option. In vagus nerve stimulation, a device similar to a pacemaker is implanted under the skin in the chest. It reduces seizures by delivering electrical signals to the brain via the vagus nerve in the neck.

Epilepsy surgery usually involves identifying and removing the seizure focus. It can be very effective and even curative for some people, even when medications have failed. It is not a 'last resort'. Talk to your neurologist about the best treatment for your seizures.

Living with epilepsy

Epilepsy is different for everyone. Some people have seizures that are easily controlled; their epilepsy doesn’t have much effect on their daily lives. Others may find that their seizures will have a bigger impact on their lives; they may affect the way they work, socialise or complete daily activities.

Diet: Do not fast or skip meals. Eat solids.

Rest: Adequate rest is essential.

Exercise: is a must but do not overdo

Stress: should be avoided

Controlling seizures

To help control your seizures:

  • Take your medication as prescribed.
  • Maintain regular sleep patterns.
  • Avoid excessive alcohol use or use of illegal drugs.
  • Work to reduce and manage stress.
  • Talk to your neurologist about any changes in symptoms or new symptoms.
  • Exercise to maintain your overall health.

Driving and safety

  • Driving should be avoided.
  • Talk to your neurologist about this issue and your overall safety.
  • People with epilepsy also need to avoid sports or activities that could be hazardous if they were to lose consciousness or become unable to control their movements.
  • Working at a height should also be avoided, along with swimming alone.

Women and epilepsy

Women with epilepsy should talk to their neurologist before becoming pregnant. Most pregnancies in women with epilepsy have a happy outcome and a healthy baby. But both seizures and the drugs that treat seizures can be harmful to the developing baby. Women need to be under close medical care to make sure the epilepsy is under the best control possible.

Partnering with your neurologist

  • Inform the neurologist about all symptoms and medical history.
  • In a diary, record the dates, frequency and severity of your seizures.

Epileptic seizure first aid

When a person is having a seizure:

  • Stay calm and remain with the person.
  • If there is food or fluid in the mouth, roll him / her onto the side immediately.
  • Keep the person safe and protect them from injury.
  • Place something soft under their head and loosen any tight clothing.
  • Do not restrain while having fits.
  • Reassure the person until they recover.
  • Time the seizure, if you can.
Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV)

What is benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV)?

Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is an inner ear problem that causes short periods of vertigo when your head is moved in certain positions. It occurs most commonly when lying down, turning over in bed and looking up. Even though you are still, you may feel like you are moving, or that the room is moving around you. You may also experience nausea, vomiting, sweating, and abnormal eye movements. If the vertigo is accompanied by double vision, difficulty speaking, change in alertness, arm / leg weakness or an inability to walk, you should immediately contact your doctor.

What causes BPPV?

BPPV occurs when small crystals of calcium carbonate, commonly referred to as rocks, in the inner ear break loose and fall into another area within the balance canals. The crystals may break loose for many reasons following an inner ear infection, fever, concussion or whiplash injury. BPPV can also occur along with other diseases of the inner ear such as Meniere's disease, migraines or as a 'normal' aging process.

How is BPPV treated?

About 85% people recover from specific neck manoeuvres, performed by their physician or physical therapist which are designed to move the crystals back into place. Research shows that the repositioning manoeuvre works on the first effort, 80-90% of the time. After the treatment is complete, you may feel nauseous, dizzy or have more trouble balancing than before. This can last for several hours. Avoid dangerous activity and follow the instructions given by the physician.

What else should I do after treatment?

For several hours, you should not turn your head quickly or tilt your head far up (as if looking to the sky) or far back, such as when lying on your back, looking down at your shoes or picking something up from the floor. You can sleep that night in whatever position you choose. Starting the next day, you should continue your normal activity and move your head as normally as possible.

Can dizziness come back?

Since we do not know the exact cause of BPPV, it is also not possible to know how to prevent it. Unfortunately, medication has not been proven effective but rather can cause more harm than good. If your BPPV does return, you should contact your physical therapist. The crystals may be in a different place, so your treatment may be different than before. You should never try to put the crystals back on your own unless instructed by your healthcare provider. Remember, BPPV is treatable and the manoeuvres can greatly reduce your vertigo and other symptoms associated with BPPV.

It is likely that your neurologist will perform several tests, including:

  • Electroencephalography (EEG), which records brain wave patterns
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain
  • Blood tests

What are the treatment options?

The most common treatment to prevent seizures is the daily use of medications. Nearly 70% of people with epilepsy can have good control of their seizures using medications. Most people whose seizures are controlled with drugs have few restrictions on their activities. Many medications are available. Some of them work better for one type of epilepsy than another. Talk to your neurologist about the choice of medication, how often it is taken and any side effects. Side effects may vary from one drug to another and from one person to another. Your neurologist will make sure that the prescribed drug is the best medication for you.

In some cases, medication does not work. Then surgery or vagus nerve stimulation may be an option. In vagus nerve stimulation, a device similar to a pacemaker is implanted under the skin on the chest. It reduces seizures by delivering electrical signals to the brain via the vagus nerve in the neck. Epilepsy surgery usually involves identifying and removing the seizure focus. It can be very effective and even curative for some people, even when medications have failed. It is not a 'last resort'. Talk to your neurologist about the best treatment for your seizures.

Living with epilepsy

Epilepsy is different for everyone. Some people have seizures that are easily controlled; their epilepsy doesn’t have much effect on their daily lives. Others may find that their seizures will have a bigger impact on their lives; they may affect the way they work, socialise or complete daily activities.

  • Diet: Do not fast or skip meals. Eat solids.
  • Rest: Adequate rest is essential
  • Exercise: is a must but do not overdo
  • Stress: should be avoided

Controlling seizures

To help control your seizures:

  • Take your medication as prescribed.
  • Maintain regular sleep patterns.
  • Avoid excessive alcohol use or use of illegal drugs.
  • Work to reduce and manage stress.
  • Talk to your neurologist about any changes in symptoms or new symptoms.
  • Exercise to maintain your overall health.

Driving and safety

  • Driving should be avoided.
  • Talk to your neurologist about this issue and your overall safety.
  • People with epilepsy also need to avoid sports or activities that could be hazardous if they were to lose consciousness or become unable to control their movements.
  • Working at a height should also be avoided, along with swimming alone.

Women and epilepsy

  • Women with epilepsy should talk to their neurologist before becoming pregnant.
  • Most pregnancies in women with epilepsy have a happy outcome and a healthy baby.
  • But both seizures and the drugs that treat seizures can be harmful to the developing baby.
  • Women need to be under close medical care to make sure the epilepsy is under the best control possible.

Partnering with your neurologist

  • Inform the neurologist about all symptoms and medical history.
  • In a diary, you record the dates, frequency, and severity of your seizures.

Epileptic seizure first aid

When a person is having a seizure:

  • Stay calm and remain with the person.
  • If there is food or fluid in the mouth, roll him / her onto the side immediately.
  • Keep the person safe and protect them from injury.
  • Place something soft under their head and loosen any tight clothing.
  • Do not restrain while having fits.
  • Reassure the person until they recover.
  • Time the seizure, if you can.