Breast and endocrine surgeons treat patients with benign and malignant breast and thyroid diseases. Endoscope-assisted breast surgery, sentinel lymph node biopsy and breast reconstructive surgery are also done, achieving fewer postoperative complications and cosmetic improvement. Surgical treatment is also performed on patients with benign and malignant thyroid tumours, as well as on patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.
The majority of patients have benign breast disease. Breast imaging like mammogram and ultrasound are frequently used as an adjunct in the diagnosis although occasionally a biopsy is also needed to confirm the diagnosis. Biopsy is often performed percutaneously and rarely is open surgery needed.
Surgery remains the mainstay of treatment of breast cancer. Breast cancer surgery has evolved from radical surgery of the past to conservative surgery where only the tumour is removed. A lesser procedure called sentinel lymph node biopsy has also been introduced where most of the underarm lymph glands are spared from removal if it is necessary.